Hiding the Diversity of Ancient Magic Thought under the Veil of Modern Translation: ‘Magic’ and ‘Zauber’ in the Greek Magical Papyri

Overview

The corpus of ancient texts known as „The Greek Magical Papyri“ was compiled by the German scholar Karl Preisendanz and published between 1929 and 1931. It is not an ancient compilation and the chronological scope of the papyri comprises – with a few exceptions in both directions – the 1st century BC to the 7th century AD. All papyri derive from Egypt.

Since Preisendanz‘ publication almost 100 years ago numerous new papyri were unearthed. These were compiled by Hans-Dieter Betz during the 1980ies and he edited the extended compilation including English translations of the entire corpus in 1986.

In this modern corpus the terms „magic/magical“ (in English translations) and „Magie“ and „Zauber“ (in German translations) are frequently used. But does their application – in number as well as in meaning – reflect the ancient terminology, and along with it, ancient magic thought and the underlying ideas and concepts? A brief examination showed: It does not.

Two phenomena in modern translation practice were observed:

  • A highly diverse ancient terminology is reduced to a small set of modern words: „Magic“ and „Zauber“
  • An individual ancient term is translated differently in similar or even identical contexts, sometimes relating it to “magic”, sometimes not

Aim

The aim of this paper is to raise awareness for the diversity of the ancient technical terminology used in the magical papyri to express magic thought which is hidden in modern translations behind the frequent usage of the terms „magic/magical“ and „Zauber“.

A second aim is to inspire translators of ancient magical texts to use the original ancient technical terms as loan words in their translations to provide their readers with the chance to see the diversity in ancient magic thought and to enable multi disciplinary research into the underlying ideas and concepts, not restricted to readers of the ancient languages.

Excursus: Why bother about translations?

Many of the original sources are still difficult and expensive to access and to work with. In numerous cases, e.g. the most extensive Greek, Demotic and Coptic manuals, no complete photographic edition exists. We do have transcriptions of many of these texts, which is third best to the originals and to photographs. But ancient magic is studied not only by readers of the ancient languages, but by scholars of multiple fields. And there is a large public interest in ancient magic beyond academic research as well.

The majority of people studying and aiming to study ancient magic depends on translations.

Therefore it seems relevant to show that, while these translations are very well suited to provide a general idea of the overall content of the ancient magical texts, they are not suited at all for gaining an understanding of the ideas and concepts concerning the fundamental forces on which the efficacy of ancient ritual practice is based. In other words: Modern translations do not suffice for the study of Theoretical Magic.

Examples illustrating the restricted access to ancient magic thought due to modern translation practice

The following examples from translations of the Greek magical papyri illustrate the above mentioned observations, namely that on one hand a highly diverse ancient terminology is reduced to the term „magic“, and on the other hand an individual ancient term is translated differently in similar or even identical contexts, sometimes relating it to “magic”, sometimes not.

Translations of the same passage by different authors are juxtaposed to show how different meaning is interpreted by individual authors in modern translations.

Greek terms

δυναμις

ορει δε <και> κινναμωνον αυτω γαρ ο θεος την δυναμιν περιεθηκε

Smith[1]: And [also] wear cinnamon, for the god has given it magical power

Preisendanz[2]: Trag auch Zimmt bei dir, denn ihm hat der Gott Zauberkraft verliehen

(PGM XIII, 358, 4th century CE)

 

πασα δυναμις ουσιας

Smith[3]: every physical power

Preisendanz[4]: jede Macht von Zauberstoff

(PGM XIII, 301 (298-303, For fire to continue), 4th century CE)

 

οπως δως θειαν και μεγιστην δυναμιν τουτω τω ξοανω και ποιησης αυτο δυνασθαι και ισχυειν κατα παντων

Smith[5]: that you may give divine and supreme strength to this image and make it effective and powerful against all [opponents]

Preisendanz[6]: auf daß du göttliche und größte Gewalt gebest diesem geschnittenen Stein und bewirkest, daß er zaubermächtig und wirksam sei für alles

(PGM XII, 302-303, 4th century CE)

 

ον ευλογει πασα ενουρανιος δυναμις αγγελων, αρχαγγελων

Grese[7]: whom every heavenly power of angels and archangels praises.

Preisendanz[8]: den preist jede himmlische Macht von Engeln, Erzengel.

(PGM IV, 3050-3052, 4th century CE)

 

Αρκτικη δυναμις παντα ποιουσα

Grese[9]: Powerful spell of the Bear which accomplishes anything

Preisendanz[10]: Alles wirkende Macht des Bärengestirns.

(PGM IV, 1331 (1331-1389, 4th century CE)

 

εξορκιζω υμας ινα δοτε χαριν και νικην και δυναμιν και πνευμα

Hock[11]: I am (…) conjuring you that you give favour, victory, power and spirit

Preisendanz[12]: ich beschwöre euch: gebt (mir) Gunst und Sieg und Macht und Zauberkraft

(PGM XXXV, 24-26, 4th century CE)

 

ορκιζω την σην δυναμιν

O`Neil[13]: I adjure your pow´r

Preisendanz[14]: ich beschwöre deine Macht

(PGM I, 344 (262-347, Apollonian invocation), 4th/5th century CE)

 

επιδεικνυμενος την δυναμιν της θειας αυτου μαγειας

O´Neil[15]: revealing the power of his own divine magic

Preisendanz[16]: wobei er (der Prophet Pachratês aus Hêliopolis) ihm (König Hadrianos) die Wirkung seiner göttlichen Zauberkunst bewies

(PGM IV, 2448-2449 (2441-2621 Love spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

φορουντι μοι ταυτην δυναμιν

Smith[17]: while I wear this power

Preisendanz[18]: dem Träger dieser Zauberkraft

(PGM XII, 260 (201-269, Placing (a) ring), 4th century CE)

Here you can look up the different meanings in the Greek dictionary provided by the Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University:
Dynamis: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=du%2Fnamis&la=greek&can=du%2Fnamis0

ενεργημα

σου αξιουντι τα [παρ] ημων ρηθεντα ενεργ[η]ματα

O´Neil[19]: when he asks you for the magic powers imparted [by] us

Preisendanz[20]: wenn er die von uns mitgeteilten (Zauber)kräfte verlangt

(PGM I, 193-194 (42-195, The spell of Pnouthis (for acquiring an assistant daimon), 4th/5th century CE)

Here you can look up the different meanings in the Greek dictionary provided by the Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University:
Energêma:

ενεργεια   

και δαιμονες φυλ<ασσονται χαρ>ακτηρων την θειαν ενεργειαν

O´Neil[21]: daimons [avoid] the characters´ magical powers

Preisendanz[22]: die Dämonen hüten sich vor <der Charaktere> göttlicher Gewalt

(PGM I, 274 (262-347, Apollonian invocation), 4th/5th century CE)

 

την πραξιν εν παση ευκοπια ιεραν επιτελεμουμενην ενεργειαν

O´Neil[23]: (I too) have sent you this magical procedure which, with complete ease, produces a holy power.

Preisendanz[24]: (sende ich dir) dieses Zauberrezept, das in aller Leichtigkeit eine heilige Wirkung erzielt.

(PGM IV, 159-160 (154-285, letter concerning bowl divination), 4th century CE)

 

μηδε πυκνως δε ποιει προς Σεληνην ει μη <ο> επαξιον ην ενεργειας πρασσεις

O´Neil[25]: but do not use it frequently to Selene unless the procedure which you are performing is worthy of its power.

Preisendanz[26]: Doch agiere damit zur Mondgöttin nicht häufig, sondern nur, wenn deine Praktik ihrer Zauberwirkung wert ist.

(PGM IV, 2570 (2441-2621, Love spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

πραξις   

εστιν δε η πραξις

O´Neil[27]: Now this is the rite

Preisendanz[28]: Die Zauberhandlung ist folgende

(PGM I, 276 (154-285, letter concerning bowl divination), 4th century CE)

 

εστιν γαρ φυλακτηριον μεγιστον της πραξεως

O´Neil[29]: For it is the greatest protective charm for the rite

Preisendanz[30]: denn es ist das größte Amulett des Zaubers

(PGM I, 275-276 (154-285, letter concerning bowl divination), 4th century CE)

 

εξαιτησις της πραξεως

O´Neil[31]: Prayer that belongs to the procedure

Preisendanz[32]: Zur Zauberhandlung gehöriges Ausbitten

(PGM IV, 434 (296-466, Wondrous spell for binding a lover), 4th century CE)

 

δακτυλιδιον προς πασαν πραξιν και επιτυχιαν

Smith[33]: A little ring [useful] for every [magical] operation and for success.

Preisendanz[34]: Ring für jeglichen Erfolg und jegliches Glück.

(PGM XII, 203 (201-269, A ring), 4th century CE)

 

εστιν το επιθυμα το εμψυλχουν τον Ερωτα και ολην την πραξιν

O´Neil[35]: The burnt offering which endows Eros and the whole procedure with soul is this:

Preisendanz[36]: Das Rauchwerk aber, das den Erôs und den ganzen Zauber beseelt, ist:

(PGM IV, 1829-1831 (1716-1870, Sword of Dardanos), 4th century CE)

 

πραγμα, πραγματεια   

επακουσον μου εν ω επιτε[λ]ω πραγματι (…) συνεπιστεσον τη πραγματεια ταυτη

O´Neil[37]: Hear me, in this business which I am performing (vm) attend this magical operation which I am performing

Preisendanz[38]: erhöre mich bei der Zauberhandlung, die ich vollbringe (vm), steh mir mit bei diesem Zauber bei

(PGM IV, 3269-3271 (3255-3274, Spell to induce insomnia), 4th century CE)

 

και μοι τοδε πραγμα τελεσσον ευχομενω τε επακουσον εμοι λιτομαι σε ανεσσα

O´Neil[39]: Fulfill for me this task, and as I pray give heed to me, Lady, I ask of you.

Preisendanz[40]: und vollende mir diesen Zauber und erhör mein Gebet, ich flehe dich an, Herrin.

(PGM IV, 2565-2566 (2441-2621 Love spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

σκευη φυλακτηεριου της πραγματειας

O´Neil[41]: Preparation of the procedure´s protective charm.

Preisendanz[42]: Herstellung des Schutzmittels beim Zaubern

(PGM IV, 2630  (2622-2707, Slander spell to Selene), 4th century CE)

 

αυτη η πραγματεια βασιλευ μεγιστε εις σε μονον χωρησατο

O´Neil[43]: Let this spell, mighty king, be transmitted to you alone

Preisendanz[44]: Dieses magische Rezept, größter Konig, solI auf dich allein übergehn

(PGM IV, 254-255 (154-285, Nephotos to PSammetichos, letter concerning bowl divination), 4th century CE)

 

οικονομια   

η και <συ> δοκιμασας θαυμασεις το παραδοξον της οικονομιας ταυτης

O´Neil[45]: And after you have tested it, you too will be amazed at the miraculous nature of this magical operation.

Preisendanz[46]: hast du es geprüft, wirst du über das Wunder dieses Verfahrens staunen.

(PGM IV, 160-162 (154-285 letter concerning bowl divination), 4th century CE)

 

εαν απορηθω τησδε της οικονομιας

O´Neil [47]: if I fail in this operation

Preisendanz[48]: falls ich mit dieser Zauberhandlung keinen Erfolg habe

(PGM IV, 292 (286-295, plant picking), 4th century CE)

 

αναγκαιον ηγησαμην σοι επιστειλαι τηδε την οικονομιαν ως ουσαν αξιεραστον και δυναμενην σοι υπεραρεσκειν

O´Neil [49]: I have deemed it necessary to send you this process as one which is worthy of admiration and able to please you greatly.

Preisendanz[50]: hielt ich es für nötig, dir dieses Verfahren brieflich mitzuteilen, da es sehr begehrenswert ist und dir über die Maßen zusagen kann.

(PGM IV, 2008-2011 (2006-2125, Pity´s spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

εξουσια   

υπερασπισον μου προς πασαν υπεροχης εξουσιας δαιμονος αε[ρι]ου

O´Neil[51]: shield me against all excess of magical power of aerial daimon

Preisendanz[52]: halte deinen Schild über mich wider jegliche Vergewaltigung durch die Zaubermacht eines Luftdämons

(PGM I, 215 (195-222, Prayer of deliverance), 4th/5th century CE)

 

ουσιαζω, ουσιας   

και ουσιασας οια δηποτε ουσια ελιξον

O´Neil[53]: and after making it magically potent with some magical material

Preisendanz[54]: versieh sie mit beliebigem Zauberstoff

(PGM VII, 463 (462-466, Love charm), 3rd century CE)

 

πασα δυναμις ουσιας

Smith[55]: every physical power

Preisendanz[56]: jede Macht von Zauberstoff

 

περιεργια, περιεργαζωμαι    

δια την των πολλων περιεργιαν τας βοτανης και τα αλ[λ]α οις εχρωντο εις θεων ειδωλα επεγραψαν οπως μη ευλαβουμενοι περιεργαζωνται μηδεν δια την εξακολουθησιν της αμαρτιας

Betz[57]: Because of the curiosity of the masses they [i.e., the scribes] inscribed the names of the herbs and other things which they employed on the statues of the gods, so that they [i.e., the masses], since they do not take precaution, might not practice magic, [being prevented] by the consequences of their misunderstanding.

Preisendanz[58]: Wegen der Zaubergier der Menge schrieben sie die Pflanzen und andereGebrauchsmittel auf Götterbilder, damit sie ja nicht ohne die nötige Vorsicht Zauberei mit ihnen treiben könnte, wegen der damit verbundenen Irrtümer.

(PGM XII, 402-406 (401-444 interpretaions from the temples), 2nd/3rd | 4th century CE)

 

φυσικος   

το δε φυσικον σου ονομα αιγυπτιστι

Smith[59]: Your magical name in Egyptian

Preisendanz[60]: Dein Zaubername aber auf ägyptisch

(PGM XIII, 152-153 und 461-462 (1-343, 343-646 parts of the eighth book of Moses), 4th century CE)

 

χαιρε (…) φυσικαι πυρος αρχαι

Grese[61]: Hail (…), natural sources of fire

Preisendanz[62]: Sei gegrüßt (…), Feuers zauberische Gewalten

(PGM IV, 939 (930-1114 charm that produces a direct vision), 4th century CE)

 

αβασκαντος, αβασκαντον

και <γενου> εμοι δια παντος επ αγαθο<ι>ς αγαθος επ αγαθω αβασκαντος αβασκαντον εμοι διδους υγειαν σωτεριαν ευποριαν δοξαν νικη<ν> κρατος επαφρ<ο>δισιαν

Smith[63]: Also [be] with me always for good, a good [god dwelling] on a good [man], yourself immune to magic, giving me health no magic can harm, well-being, prosperity, glory, victory, power, sex appeal.

Preisendanz[64]: und (sei) immer bei mir, zu meinem Heil, gütig zu meinem Wohl und gib mir neidlos unbeneidete Gesundheit, Heil, Reichtum, Ruhm, Sieg, Macht, Beliebtheit.

(PGM XIII, 800-804 (734-1077 collection of miscellaneous spells), 4th century CE)

 

περικαθαρτις   

ου περικαθαρτης

O´Neil[65]: no priest who removes magic spells

Preisendanz[66]: kein Sühnepriester

(PGM XXXVI, 158 (134-160, Love spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

μαγικος   

περι παντων οσων εστιν εν την μαγικη εμπει[ρια]

O´Neil[67]: about everything that is part of magical knowledge

Preisendanz[68]: über alles, was es in der magischen Erfahrung gibt

(PGM I, 330-331 (262-343 Apollonian invocation), 4th/5th century CE)

 

συ δε μαγικην ψυχην εχων οπλισθεις

O´Neil[69]: you, armed by having this magical soul

Preisendanz[70]: du aber mit deiner magischen Seele gewappnet

(PGM IV, 209-210 (154-285 Nephotos to Psammetichos (letter concerning bowl divination), 4th century CE)

 

μαγεια[71]   

την ολην αληθειαν της περι αυτον μαγειας

O´Neil[72]: as he thoroughly tested the whole truth of the magic within his power

Preisendanz[73]: als er die ganze Wahrheit seiner Magie erwies

(PGM IV, 2453-2454 (2441-2621 Love spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

μαγειης της εμης βελος

O´Neil[74]: my magic’s winged shaft

Preisendanz[75]: das Geschoß meines Zaubers

(PGM IV, 2319-2220 (2241-2358 Document to the waning moon), 4th century CE)

 

ω μα[καρι]ε μυστα της ιερας μαγειας

O´Neil[76]: O [blessed] initiate of sacred magic

Preisendanz[77]: du glücklicher Myste heiliger Magie

(PGM I, 127 (42-195 The spell of Pnouthis (for acquiring an assistant daimon), 4th/5th century CE)

 

επιδεικνυμενος την δυναμιν της θειας αυτου μαγειας

O´Neil[78]: the power of his own divine magic

Preisendanz[79]: wobei er (der Propeht Pachratês aus Hêliopolis) ihm (König Hadrianos) die Wirkung seiner göttlichen Zauberkunst bewies

(PGM IV, 2448-2449 (2441-2621 Love spell of attraction), 4th century CE)

 

Dynamis (δυναμις) in the ancient magical papyri

Not only is there a large body of specialized terminology attested in the ancient ritual manuals, but the same term can be used with varying meaning and in different conceptual contexts as well. The ancient Greek term Dynamis is chosen here as an example to illustrate the variety in meaning and underlying conceptual ideas expressed with a single term.

Translations of the Greek term Dynamis

Source English translations German translations
PGM XIII, 358 magical power Zauberkraft
PGM XII, 302-303 power Macht
strength, effective Gewalt, zaubermächtig
PGM IV, 3050-3052 power Macht
PGM IV, 1331 Powerful spell Macht
PGM XXXV power Macht
PGM I, 344 pow’r Macht
PGM IV, 2448-2449 power Wirkung
PGM XII, 260 power Zauberkraft

What is Dynamis in the ancient Greek magical papyri?

In the ancient magical papyri Dynamis / Tenamis is something that:

  • is described as divine, supreme, heavenly (or celestial), evil
  • a god can provide a spice with
  • a god can provide a stone with to make it δυνασθαι and ισχυειν for everything
  • can be given by higher powers to people along with χαριν and νικην and πνευμα
  • a god can „possess“
  • a god can be adjured by
  • can be adjured itself
  • can be differentiated by an individualizing name
  • can be adressed by name
  • if individualized by name, can be used as part of a phylaktêrion against demons, spirits, sickness and suffering when the name is written down (note: not a demon, spirit or any other kind of higher power is the source for protection, but an individualized Dynamis is)
  • can be a property/quality of divine magic
  • can be a property/quality of oésÛaw
  • can be worn
  • praises a god (The ενουρανιος δυναμις of angels and archangels praises a god; Note: not the angels themselves. I find this sentence particularly interesting and wonder how abstract its creator understood the content.)

Summary

The aim of this paper was to raise awareness for the diversity of the ancient technical terminology used in the magical papyri to express magic thought which is hidden in modern translations behind the frequent usage of the terms „magic/magical“ and „Zauber“.

In a brief examination of the most popular translations two phenomena were observed: 1.) A highly diverse ancient terminology is reduced to a small set of modern words, and 2.) an individual ancient term is translated differently in similar or even identical contexts, sometimes relating it to “magic”, sometimes not.

My theory is that for gaining a more detailed understanding of the ideas and concepts concerning the fundamental forces on which the efficacy of ancient ritual practice is based, we need translations that reflect the applied technical terminology more precisely. If we want to study theoretical ancient magic we need to listen closely to what the practitioners said.

Bibliography

Betz (1986) Hans Dieter Betz (ed.), The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Chicago 1986.
Dzwiza (2013) Kirsten Dzwiza, Schriftverwendung in antiker Ritualpraxis anhand der griechischen, demotischen und koptischen Praxisanleitungen des 1.-7. Jahrhunderts, Heidelberg/Erfurt 2013.
Preisendanz (1928, 19732) Karl Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae – Die griechischen Zauberpapyri, Bd. I, Stuttgart 1928 (19732 überarbeitet herausgegeben von Albert Henrichs).
Preisendanz (1931, 19742) Karl Preisendanz, Die griechischen Zauberpapyri, Bd. II, Stuttgart 1931  (19742 überarbeitet herausgegeben von Albert Henrichs).

Notes

[1] Morton Smith in Betz (1992), 182.

[2] Preisendanz (19742), 105.

[3] Morton Smith in Betz (1992), 180.

[4] Preisendanz (19742), 103.

[5] Morton Smith in Betz (1992), 164.

[6] Preisendanz (19742), 78.

[7] W. C. Grese in Betz (1992), 97.

[8] Preisendanz (19732), 171.

[9] W. C. Grese in Betz (1992), 63.

[10] Preisendanz (19732), 117.

[11] R. F. Hock in Betz (1992), 268.

[12] Preisendanz (19742), 162.

[13] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 12.

[14] Preisendanz (19732), 19.

[15] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 83.

[16] Preisendanz (19732), 149.

[17] Morton Smith in Betz (1992), 163.

[18] Preisendanz (19742), 75.

[19] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 8.

[20] Preisendanz (19732), 13.

[21] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 10.

[22] Preisendanz (19732), 17.

[23] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 40.

[24] Preisendanz (19732), 77.

[25] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 85.

[26] Preisendanz (19732), 153.

[27] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 10.

[28] Preisendanz (19732), 17.

[29] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 10.

[30] Preisendanz (19732), 17.

[31] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 46.

[32] Preisendanz (19732), 87.

[33] Morton Smith in Betz (1992), 195.

[34] Preisendanz (19742), 71.

[35] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 71.

[36] Preisendanz (19732), 129.

[37] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 101.

[38] Preisendanz (19732), 181.

[39] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 85.

[40] Preisendanz (19732), 153.

[41] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 87.

[42] Preisendanz (19732), 157.

[43] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 42.

[44] Preisendanz (19732), 81.

[45] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 40.

[46] Preisendanz (19732), 77.

[47] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 44.

[48] Preisendanz (19732), 83.

[49] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 73.

[50] Preisendanz (19732), 135.

[51] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 8.

[52] Preisendanz (19732), 13.

[53] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 130.

[54] Preisendanz (19742), 21.

[55] Morton Smith in Betz (1992), 180.

[56] Preisendanz (19742), 103.

[57] H. D. Betz in Betz (1992), 167.

[58] Preisendanz (19742), 83-84.

[59] M. Smith in Betz (1992), 176, with note no. 39: „fusikñn, meaning „with power to produce physical effects.““

[60] Preisendanz (19742), 94.

[61] W. C. Grese in Betz (1992), 56.

[62] Preisendanz (19732), 105.

[63] M. Smith in Betz (1992), 191.

[64] Preisendanz (19742), 123.

[65] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 273.

[66] Preisendanz (19742), 168.

[67] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 11.

[68] Preisendanz (19732), 19.

[69] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 41.

[70] Preisendanz (19732), 79.

[71] It is noteworthy that the term μαγεια in Greek manuals seems to be attested only in PGM I and PGM IV (based on the Preisendanz index). A more thorough analysis would certainly be useful especially regarding the ongoing discussion about the use of the term „magic“ in today’s scholarship as well as in antiquity.

[72] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 83.

[73] Preisendanz (19732), 149.

[74] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 80, see also note 292.

[75] Preisendanz (19732), 144.

[76] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 6.

[77] Preisendanz (19732), 9.

[78] E. N. O´Neil in Betz (1992), 83.

[79] Preisendanz (19732), 149.


How to quote

Kirsten D. Dzwiza, Hiding the Diversity of Ancient Magic Thought under the Veil of Modern Translation: ‘Magic’ and ‘Zauber’ in the Greek Magical Papyri, in: Charaktêres – Ancient Magic and Ritual Practice Knowledge Hub, 09.2022.


 

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